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apparent power


Special Area of Conservation

sacrificial anode

An easily corroded metal rod (usually magnesium) installed in a water tank to protect the less-easily corroded tank material from corroding

safety valve

A valve that limits system pressure by releasing fluid when a certain safe pressure limit has been reached (same as pressure relief valve)


System Average Interruption Duration Index

sal fundida

Una sal que se encuentra en la fase líquida, siendo normalmente sólida a temperatura y presión estándar (STP).

salvage value

The estimated selling price of an asset once it has been fully depreciated.


supervision control and data acquisition


squirrel cage induction generator


Process of identifying the significant issues that should be addressed by an environmental impact assessment.


German regulation speficying connection conditions for onshore wind generation. Part of German renewable energy legislation.

second generation biofuels

Second generation biofuels' are based on a broader spectrum of feedstock including cellulosic biomass. The aim is to increase efficiency and to reduce competition to food production. The potential feedstocks include waste biomass, the stalks of wheat and corn, wood, and special energy crops (e.g. miscanthus). Main technologies for second generation of biofuels are biomass to liquid (BtL) and cellulosic bioethanol production processes.

secondary control

Second grid control mechanism which is able to increase active power output within 15 seconds and is able to maintain the response for a further 30 minutes. It aims at bringing system frequency back to the set-point value. Also known as secondary frequency control.

secondary energy

Energy that has been extracted/generated from another primary energy source; examples of secondary energy include electricity or biogas.

secondary reserve

Reserve available after 5 minutes


"The process through which an issuer creates a financial instrument by combining other financial assets and then marketing different tiers of the repackaged instruments to investors. The process can encompass any type of financial asset and promotes liquidity in the marketplace.


1.(supply) Security of a power system refers to the degree of risk associated with its ability to survive imminent disturbances (contingencies) without interruption of customer service

seguimiento del punto de potencia máxima

Operar el arreglo al punto de potencia pico de la curva I-V de dicho arreglo, donde se obtiene la potencia máxima.


"1. (suministro) Seguridad de un sistema eléctrico referida al grado de riesgo asociado a su capacidad de sobrevivir a perturbaciones inminentes (contingencias) sin interrupción del servicio a los usuarios.

seguridad n-1

Capacidad de un sistema de continuar su operación ininterrumpida en caso de fallo de alguno de sus componentes.

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