English Glossary

Since 02.06.2017

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solar gain

The increase in temperature in a space, object or structure that results from solar radiation.

solar irradiance

Solar power incident on a surface at any one time. The solar power incident on a surface. Solar irradiance is literally the power (watts) of the sun incident to a surface. The international unit of scientific measurement of irradiance is W/m2.

solar irradiation

The total solar energy over a set period of time reaching a unit of surface area. Usually expressed in kilowatt-hours per square meter (kWh/m2). Also called insolation.

solar radiation

Energy from the sun is emitted as electromagnetic radiation, which includes visible light.

solar station

A compact and well-insulated unit that contains the main components and armatures of a solar thermal system

solar thermal

System that produces thermal energy (heat) from sun light

solar tower

A CSP technology which uses a ground-based field of mirrors to focus and concentrate direct solar irradiation onto a receiver mounted high on a central tower to produce high temperatures.

solid biomass

A material of recent biological origin, e.g. wood or plant matter. The most common form of solid biomass is wood fuel (energy content approx. 10-20 MJ/kg), used e.g. for heat and power generation.

sound power level

Describes the ability of a source to produce noise (strength of source). IEC 61400-11 is a standard for turbine noise measurement. Sound is measured using units of decibels (dB).

sound pressure level

Measure of the noise level at a receptor (neighbor of wind farms, microphone). Sound is measured using units of decibels (dB) and (dB(A)).


special protection area

space heating

The heating of rooms and buildings in cold climates

spatial resolution

Geographical resolution.

spatio-temporal grid

Spatial and time resolution of a numerical weather prediction model.


special purpose entity

Special Area of Conservation

SAC - protected area under EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC), designated for rare, vulnerable and endangered habitats and species (e.g. plants, mammals and fish), listed in Annexes I and II Habitats Directive.

special protection area

SPA - protected area under EU Birds Directive (79/409/EEC), designated for bird species listed in Annex I of the Directive, in particular internationally important concentrations of migratory and wetland birds. Designation is focused on habitats of these species.

special purpose entity

An entity established for a particular purpose, such as obtaining off-balance sheet financing, gaining tax advantages, or isolating the sponsors’ other assets from the project’s creditors. Also known as special purpose vehicle (SPV).

special purpose vehicle

SPV is interchangeable with the term "special purpose entity - SPE"

specific heat capacity

The heat required to raise the unit mass of a substance by unit temperature (SI unit: J/kgK)

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