English Glossary

Since 02.06.2017

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sewage sludge

Semisolid product of water purification in a sewage plant.


synchronous generator

shadow flicker

Term used to describe the short-lived effect of shadows cast by rotating blades of wind turbines when the sun passes behind them, and which occurs under certain combinations of geographical positions and time of day.


Mechanical connection between turbine and generator.

shape parameter (k)

k is the form parameter of the Weibull distribution. It specifies the shape of a Weibull distribution and takes on a value of between 1 and 3. A small value for k signifies very variable winds, while constand winds are characterized by a larger k.

shareholders agreement

The generic term for any contract between two or more shareholders governing their conduct in relation to the corporation, or partnership, in which they own shares.

short circuit current

The current produced by an illuminated PV cell, module, or array when its output terminals are shorted.


A device which allows electric current to pass around another point in the circuit. The term is also widely used in photovoltaics to describe an unwanted short circuit between the front and back surface contacts of a solar cell, usually caused by wafer damage.

shut-off valve

A valve to shut-off a pipe and stop circulation (same as isolating valve)


A compound having a molecular structure based on a chain of alternate silicon and oxygen atoms, especially (as in silicone) with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms.

slack node

The node in a load flow problem at which active and reactive power flows are balanced.


Slip is defined as the difference between synchronous speed and operating speed in induction or asynchronous motor or generator.

slip ring

A slip ring is an electromechanical device that allows the transmission of power and electrical signals from a stationary to a rotating structure. A slip ring is used in electromechanical systems that require unrestrained, intermittent or continuous rotation while transmitting power. It is mounted on a rotating part of a machine to provide a continuous electrical connection through brushes on stationary contacts.


Biosolids separated from liquids during processing. Sludge may contain up to 97 % water by volume.


synchronous machine

smart grid

An electricity network based on digital technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via two-way digital communication. Includes a variety of operational and energy measures such as smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources.


small and medium-sized enterprises




Solar Radiation Data

solar fraction

The proportion of the energy demand which is met by the solar thermal system (typically given as a %)

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