English Glossary

Since 02.06.2017

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A material with a low electrical resistance, which allows for the flow of electrical current through it. Opposite of an insulator.

confidence interval

In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate of a population parameter. It is an observed interval (i.e., it is calculated from the observations), in principle different from sample to sample, that frequently includes the parameter of interest if the experiment is repeated. How frequently the observed interval contains the parameter is determined by the confidence level or confidence coefficient.

connate water

Water trapped in the pores of a rock during formation of the rock. Might also be described as fossil water. Connate water can be dense and saline compared with seawater. Formation water, or interstitial water, in contrast, is simply water found in the pore spaces of a rock, and might not have been present when the rock was formed.

connection conditions

Specification minimum technical requirements regarding connection to the electricity grid that system operators and users need to comply with.

Consumption profile

A gradient of consumption e.g. water, energy


Pre-agreed cost overrun funding in the investment cost budget of a project company (a "money reserve" for unexpected cash shortages during project implementation).


An additional amount or percentage to any cash flow item (such as capital expenditures) that is needed to provide a cushion.


A mode of heat transfer through a liquid or gas

Convection brake

A device that preventes convection

convection heat transfer

Heat transfer via molecule movements in a fluid

conventional generation

Electricity generation driven by either fossil fuels (coal, gas), nuclear or large hydro power plants (hydro renewable, but considered 'conventional' in this case).

conversion losses

Energy that is lost during the conversion of one form of energy to another.


In mathematics and, in particular, functional analysis, convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions: f and g, producing a third function that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the area overlap between the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

cooling load

The amount of heat that must be removed from a building to maintain a comfortable temperature for its occupants. The amount of heat generated within a building space from occupants, electrical equipment, artificial lighting, and solar radiation that a HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) system must remove. Usually expressed in watts per square meter of building floor space.

Coordinated Universal Time

This is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time.


May refer to:

1) coefficient of performance

2) Conference of the Parties

copper indium (gallium) diselenide

A type of thin film PV module

corporate financing

Corporate financing usually refers to financing a project using funds available to the company / organisation as a whole, with no additional funds raised for the particular project. As opposed to ‘project financing’ where funds are raised explicitly for a particular project.


The function of the power factor (cosphi) of the active power (P); This is not the power factor itself. It is used as a characteristic of the power factor and the active power, to which generators have to comply: for a certain active power output (e.g. 80% of the rated power) a certain cosphi is required.

cosphi(P) characteristics

Power factor versus active power characteristics. Such a characteristic ensures operation at unity power factor (minimum losses) for low active power outputs.

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