English Glossary


02.06.2017

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A

AFD

French Development Agency/ Agence Française du Développement

AfDB

African Development Bank

AFOLU

Agriculture, Forest and Other Land Uses

AGC

automatic generation control

aggregated modeling

Modeling a generator as an equivalent generator having the size of the total installed capacity of several individual generators.

air changes per hour

The number of times that the inside air of a building is replaced in one hour.


air density

The mass per unit volume of air.

air mass

Air mass defines how many times a ray of sunlight passes the perpendicular thickness of the atmosphere. When the sun is located at a height of 90º, i.e. at noon of the spring or autumn equinox, the AM is equal to 1. Otherwise, the AM increases with the decreasing of the sun’s height.

air separator

A device which releases air, but not fluid, out of a system

albedo

The diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface. It is defined as the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it.

alkali

A soluble salt obtained from the ashes of plants and consisting largely of potassium, sodium carbonate, calcium or ammonia.

alternating current

An electric current that reverses direction periodically.

alternator

An electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

AM

air mass

ammeter

An ammeter is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit.

ammonia

A gaseous compound of hydrogen and nitrogen, NH3, with a pungent smell and taste.

ammonium

Ion NH4+ derived from ammonia by combination with a hydrogen ion and known in compounds (as salts) that resemble in properties the compounds of the alkali metals.

amortization

Reduction of capital or up–front expenses (capitalized) over time, often with an equal amount per annum.

anaerobic bacteria

Micro-organisms that live and reproduce in an environment containing no 'free' or dissolved oxygen. Used for anaerobic digestion.

anaerobic digestion

Microbiological process of decomposition of organic matter, in the complete absence of oxygen, carried out by the concerted action of a wide range of micro-organisms. AD is common to many natural environments and is applied to produce biogas in airproof reactor tanks, commonly named digesters. (Syn. digestion, fermentation)


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